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Saturday, October 16, 2010

MULTI-FAITH APPROACH OF TEACHING RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS!

In a society normally we expected to have more than one form of religion practiced. Although their are many societies around the world found to have a single religion ,but some of their members are forced to migrate by one or two of these factors. It is good to promote multi-faith approach as to equip children with all forms of religions which make up the world.
Multi-faith approach refers to the teachings of many religions ,that's drawing moral values from religions for example Christianity,Islamic,Hinduism,Budhaism,Judaism ,African Traditional, Bahai faith or others.
The background of multi-faith approach realised teachings of religious and moral education should consider the world as a multi-faith of nations composed to subscribe to various religons. For example in Zimbabwean society the colonial era education system was only Christianity because many schools built by christian missionaries who condemned other religions in promotion of their own religion.To correct this fatal mistake a number of approaches were needed to be employed in the moral education policy inorder to produce a multi-cultural oriented people through adopting multi-faith approach in the primary educational system.
The rationality for the adoption of multi-faith approach is to understand world as a multi-faith and egalitarian society.Therefore it is vital to treat religions as equal by helping the learning children to know about other religions as they are likely to encounter them. So that they understand the religious difference and appreciate the similarities.
Pupils should developed the attitudes of respecting those whose beliefs differ from theirs,hence developing a spirit of tolerance and co-operation as they are co-habiting in the world of religious diverse.This broadens their minds ,instills confidence and develops a sense of worth and belonging. An open approach which accepts mankinds as given by their religious practices and pupils have the opportunity to explore various religions and have a much deeper understanding of their own religion and morals.
When applying the multi-faith approach the teacher is expected to make use of different religions in teachings of different people. The teaching concepts for example 'caring' is found in all religions ,the christians use the parable of a 'good Samaritan' who helped a robbed Jewish person lying by the side of the road and took him to the clinic, Islam has 'armsgiving where sharing with the need the items like money ,clothes ,food ,accommodation etc. And African Traditional Religion the shona people in particular believe in inheritence 'nhaka' which emphasises caring for the family of the deceased.
The sources of matter as references like the sacred records the bible,qu,rãn and other different faith scriptural books and pamphlets which should not be used as historical texts ,but as to teach moral values.Rituals and ceremonies must be used for pupils to understand the benefits and interactions believers get from them.
The full knowledge of the facts in the specific religion,faith or ceremony is more beneficial for learning angles of moral values and what might pupils drawn from the lessons.
Inconclusion the teacher should not indoctrinate pupils with specific religious ideas or convert pupils to his/her own religon or any form of bias to any religion.

Further reading
Cox ,E.(1983)Problems and Possibilities for Religious Education .

Haar,G.T(1982) Faith of our Forefathers Studies on Religious Education in Sub -Saharan Africa.

Manonge and Mukandatsama (1990)Religious and Moral Education :A handbook for student teachers.

MULTI FAITH APROACH TO THE TEACHING OF HINDUISM

Some may ask why too much talking of multi-faith approach in religious and moral education and regards to hinduism in particular?
We use multi-faith to down play scholary views which felt to consider or regards Hinduism as a religion. Down play that view of hinduism as a social system. As a vast family of religious tradition,contrasting and conflicting King Richard objected the term hinduism as viewed from western import which was brought by missionaries.
The term hinduism is believed to be coined by missionaries wanted to unify a variety of discourse. Hinduism is commonly known by its believers doing worship known as 'puja'. A ceremony of making offerings to their gods using coconut,flowers and apples . A priest leading the function of applying a spot of red or yellow pigment ,the tilak to the foreheads of the followers . Annually believers mostly in India flock to the river Ganges to be purified by being immersed in the river's waters.
According to Smith hinduism is certainly a concept with Indians and the term is unknown to classical Hindus. Most scholars then agreed that hinduism is not meaningful unity of discourse ,because it covers ethical issues ,philosophical and social dimensions. Hence Smith observed that in hinduism there is any hardly single theme which can be shown to be varied for all the hindus.
One God is believed to be superior being and may be considered inferior with other hindus. To understand hinduism one should put it in the context of other religions. Lets explore to prove whether hindu can be proved to be a religion.Why hinduism to be taught like other religions?
Hinduism has most components of a religion as defined by various scholars.As noted by Hutchson(1969) religion may be defined as a system of holy forms which range from beliefs, practices ,ways of thinking and feelings. According to a historians and phenomenologist of religion ,like Nathan Soderblom ,Rudolf Otto and Geradus Van Der Lew they hold the sacrelity of holiness to be the holymark of religion and its essence.
Cultural systems beliefs can't be given the title religion as they is nothing which is believed sacred by the believers.
The western culture is so alien to hindu which tend to see life as chronological line of events in history.Hinduism is a different way of understanding life as a self-repeating cycle in which mankind's history is of less significance.
There is something the hindus adore Brahman. Who is the ultimate being 'God'.Brahman is believed to be a supreme of holy or equivalent to the supreme being ,according to their holy writings known as 'upanishards' which viewed Brahman as internal ,eternal ,unchanging and timeless.
He(Brahman) is a unifying reality,outstanding power of the universe and ultimate reality of all things depend.
Definition of hinduism is so complex since it has no definite creed,priestly hierarchy or governing board.However it have swamis(teachers)and spiritual guides (gurus).
Hinduism qualifies to be a religion as a belief in spiritual beings. Central to hinduism is beliefs in spirits and most scared places for example mountains ,rivers ,crossroads are believed to be the home of spirits or gods.

RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION AS A SOCIAL AND SPIRITUAL SUBJECT.

People are said their thoughts square back to the concept that their world and their life originated and designed by a specific being with high supremacy in their spiritual helm.Karl Max popularly noted by his assertations that he says religion is the opium of human mind.
One of the leading Zimbabwean scuptor Tapfuma Gutsa also says,"God is the product of human mind." In his stone scuptures his themes are drawn from religious practices and view it in the visual of his sculpting skills on stones with impression of an aesthetic,admirative and decorative purposes.
John ,B Noss in his book 'Man's Religions cited in the watchtower book titled 'Mankind's search for God'(1990:28) points out that:''All religions say one way or another that man does not ,and can not ,stand alone .He is vitally related with and even dependent on powers in Nature and Society external to himself. Dimly or clearly ,he knows that he is not an independent center of force capable of standing apart from the world.''
Religion therefore is a phenomenon found in human existance.Hence religious education is meant to provide children with opportunities for exploring their own and other people's religions and moral experiences.
The book of world religions-from Ancient History to the present ,quoted in the same publisher noted above says:''The study of religion reveals that an important feature of it is a longing for value in life ,a belief that life is not accidental and meaningless.The search for meaning leads to faith in a power greater than human ,and finally to a universal or superhuman mind which has intention and will to maintain the highest values for human life''.
The children should have the knowledge of rejecting or accepting intelligibly any particular religious or moral stance.Proving the existence of God on any morals ,religious facts and beliefs provide them with faith tools for the life long search for religious needs which is similar to human's basic needs such as food,love,accommodation,belonging ,clean environment for sustainence of life.
The objections takes roots from reflections of societies in the world's different religions and morals rather than Clegymen or religious and moral philosophers.
Religion is an economic and social factor in which teachers should expose religions to the children in their daily activities. Helping them to respect other people who hold beliefs of constrast to others for promotion of tolerance and propensity for reconciliation.
Morals are essential for interaction to every individual 's society or world for the good of one's society or world.
Prominent religious faith in the society has detrimental effects to the children to the extend that they are being succumbed to the moral stance of their followers . Therefore a child adheres to secure direction ,faith and validity of that religion.

Religious and Moral Education as a Living Subject!

Many people today attribute the alleged decline in moral standards amongst younger generation to the decreasing influence of religous bodies and religious communities.
Thus implying that without faith in a deity moral values has no firm basis.There is an admitted similarity between religion and morality. Both are concerned with attitudes intentions and questions of value. moreover both appeal to the case of morality awe and wonder in the case of religion.
Therefore it's of great necessity for every teacher not to separate the two elements as one is teaching religious and moral education.
Religious and Moral Education is an intentional ,valuable long lasting interpersonal activity of the whole person which involves knowing and understanding in depth and breath of the religious aspect with the depth dimension of life.
People's ultimate concerns , commitments and the search of transcendent. Morality entells the norms and values of any given society. Every intelligent and well educated person needs to be sympathetically and critically exposed to the norms and values of his society as well as other people's societies.
It should be the intention of every teacher to produce individuals who are autonomous ,who can make their own informed independent judgement. Teachers should therefore expose children to as many situation as possible and also invite opinions from different people by using open ended questions. Especially after having delive a story from a religious text.Religious and Moral Education should be taken as comparative study of morals in different societies.
There should be any facts or rules when it comes to the learning of Religious and Moral Education.Pupils should be exposed to various forms of information so that they make their own decisions. Religious and Moral Education should try to make people to the see best ways of controlling their emotions so as to be rationale.
Religious and Moral Education as a social subject should help pupils to decide which particular criteria is important in judging rationality of their moral emotions. Pupils should go beyond the primary stage of development through the activities given by the teacher of one's actions on the feelings ,interests and needs of others.
However the advent of communication technology led to the rapid decline of moral standards as they subdued by this advancements. The scripts viewed on the films on TV,internet and so on is very strong to change the feelings of the viewer. It mostly associated with culture of immoral illicities which produced to influence the viewers badly. As consequences traditional moral standards of the societies are threatened and become extinct. Many religious institutions worldover are witnessing the massive decline of believers who strictly follow religious doctrines which has common good for humanity. The influences of globalisation and allowance of freedom ,awareness of human rights has detrimental changes to our own cultural changes.

How to write a good Aim and Lesson Planning!

Look up the definition of the aim of subject isolate the essential factors which gives the subject frames and relevance.
Keep your statement of aim short .Check and double check the wording of the aim for accuracy and clarity to be sure it is not ambigous.The aim should embrace the philosophy of the subject so keep terms general .The aim is usually worded to state what one hopes to achieve in the pupils.Phrase the aim so that it cooperates the development of the particular view of the subject.
Content is derived from the syllabus and selection is determined by general aims for example work and leisure,self reliance,cognitive stage of pupils for example average,low or high intelligent.Previous knowledge of pupils rely and buid on knowledge which acquired by pupils.And only such knowledge which is relevant to new knowledge to be taught.
ACTIVITIES:Listening ,reading ,writing,practical work ,dramatic work ,playing games.
What is a Lesson Plan?It is an instructional session designed and administered by a teacher with intention of atterning a learning objectives through guided class activites involving a variety of teaching techniques.
consideration of lesson planning:The academic standard of learners,subject matter for instance syllabus ,aids and teaching methods.
Resources and constraints such as time available and facilities size of the class.
Lesson Structure:
Introduction should state the objective of the lesson and the topic,main concept,presentation and teaching methods,pupils' activities.Assumed knowledge of learners.
Conclusion:The closure of lesson must provide for revision and application of what have been taught.

How to write a good Aim and Lesson Planning!

Look up the definition of the aim of subject isolate the essential factors which gives the subject frames and relevance.
Keep your statement of aim short .Check and double check the wording of the aim for accuracy and clarity to be sure it is not ambigous.The aim should embrace the philosophy of the subject so keep terms general .The aim is usually worded to state what one hopes to achieve in the pupils.Phrase the aim so that it cooperates the development of the particular view of the subject.
Content is derived from the syllabus and selection is determined by general aims for example work and leisure,self reliance,cognitive stage of pupils for example average,low or high intelligent.Previous knowledge of pupils rely and buid on knowledge which acquired by pupils.And only such knowledge which is relevant to new knowledge to be taught.
ACTIVITIES:Listening ,reading ,writing,practical work ,dramatic work ,playing games.
What is a Lesson Plan?It is an instructional session designed and administered by a teacher with intention of atterning a learning objectives through guided class activites involving a variety of teaching techniques.
consideration of lesson planning:The academic standard of learners,subject matter for instance syllabus ,aids and teaching methods.
Resources and constraints such as time available and facilities size of the class.
Lesson Structure:
Introduction should state the objective of the lesson and the topic,main concept,presentation and teaching methods,pupils' activities.Assumed knowledge of learners.
Conclusion:The closure of lesson must provide for revision and application of what have been taught.

PARTICIPATORY METHOD OF TEACHING AND LEARNING IN THE PRIMARY EDUCATION

Primary education system is concerned with behavioural changes as result pupils need to participate fully ,if they are to influence others ,as well as develop skills ,attitudes ,values which make them responsible in any community set up.
Hence teaching method which enabled the learner to easily get involved in the learning process both as individual and as group is useful to be adopted.Such method of instruction is known as 'participatory method.'
According to Zimbabwe's Ministry of Education sports arts and culture's population Training manual(1997:17)defines participatory method as,''...teaching and learning method which enable the learner to actively involve in the learning process as individual or group situations. The learner explores a situation ,identifies a problem ,describes ,analyses ,interprets and appreciates the problem and then makes a decision to solve it.''
Amnesty International a Non Government Organisation which monitors humanity and conducivity to sustainable social life observes participatory method in many educational systems and approves it to be the most relevant and appropriate method which develops skills ,attitudes as well as knowledge in both adults and children.
Children become active explorers of their own immediate world around them rather than being passive recepients from their educational practitioners especially concerning their social,health or community issues.
On all these issues the emphasis on the process through which individual makes an infomed decisions after exploring different possibilities.Guided by the principle that we learn and remember things by doing.
The role of a teacher is therefore of a facilitator who helps learners to participate by exploring situations and understand them. The teacher should guide the learning environment by use of probing questions which stipulates critical thinking instead of imposing decisions and ideas on them.
Participatory methology in the child education systems has advantages to enhences self-esteem. When pupils realised that they have something positive they can contribute ,they build their confidence and instilled with a sense of responsibility over their own social life.The Greek philosopher and great thinker Alistole describes a human being as a 'social animal'.This forced him to be concerned with his social sorroundings.
As team work they develop much in group activities and build effectively on all issues of which participatory method is the centre of learning and become stronger with capacity to act and solve problems as a team.
Some examples of participatory method are:Picture code and role plays ,drama ,song,dance,poetry,debates,small groups discussions ,social forum,interactive issue drama ,brainstorming ,devil advocates ,values clarification on future's will etc.
However this method works effectively in combination with other methods of instruction which can be used in any specific lesson and it also depends with the cognitive level of learners their experiences and the advancement of instructional media which is available to them.
The teacher as facilitator should impose learners to relate to real life through the dialogue and can assist them with facts in association with meaning and actions in their community life needs and wants.

A REVIEW OF A PRIMARY EDUCATION :HEALTH AND LIFE SKILLS IN ZIMBABWE EDUCATION SYSTEM

With the intention to help primary school children to engage themselves in open lessons to discuss their community life issues . Children are feel much interested in sharing their life experiences in a learning mood as they are facilitated by their teacher in to a meaningful social,health and moral discussions.
Primary education is a course of eight years which is divide into two major categories. The first four grades that's 0-3 are for infants ,whilst the juniours occupy Grade four to Grade 7 where the child at the end of the year is expected to sit for the exernal examination organised and conducted by Zimbabwe Examination Council (ZIMSEC). This Grade 7 examination is the passport to go to the secondary education.
Health and life skills subject is not examinable as a discipline ,but is integrated in the general paper one and two.
The historical background of Health and life skills in Zimbabwe dates back in 1990 as the subject was taught as HIV&AIDS lesson.
HIV&AIDS lessons faced a lot of negative criticism from curriculum influencers like church organisations,parents and teachers. This is because in Zimbabwe culture it is a taboo to discuss sexual matters on the public .Religious organisations on the other hand opposed the idea of teaching and learning of HIV&AIDS related issues as they contradict with bible teachings about sex in marriage ,hence teaching the use of condoms and other sexual activities out side wedlock is found immoral practices which is totally unacceptable. Teachers as curriculum implementers regard teaching of HIV &AIDS alone as not enough for behavioural change towards reducing the spread of this disease in the Zimbabwean society.
Therefore the curriculum designers complied with the needs and expectations of the society to widen and change the subject to Health and life skills. To concur with Nziramasanga educational commission (2001)which recommends that the learner should get involved in participatory method of learning where learners are actively involved in their own learning. Roasseau the pioneer of child education advocates that children must learn from their immediate environment and should be aware of of all community issues and learn how to solve community challenges through embarking on community projects. This led to the birth of HEALTH AND LIFE SKILLS.
Health and life skills taught in juniour grades where pupils are facilitated by their teacher to discuss issues related their health,religious,social,education and social for moral development. This help to conscientise them about these issues and become aware of them as informed citizens through discussing as peers.The teacher is there to instill discipline,clarify sticking issues and give shy or quiet children to participate by saying out their views.
The syllabus has five themes which are: Relationships,friendship,family ,community and conflicts.
In all these themes the teacher breakdown these themes into teachable units developing content which is according to the cognitive level of the learners, their experiences and interests on topics like: human growth and development,Puberty,sex abstinence,health and personal hygiene ,Nutrition and diseases ,Values and beliefs and mitigation programmes.
The teacher schemes the subject and draft lesson plans with clear objectives so that the lesson has purpose and clear direction.The teaching and learning media in the form of pictures,the local community ,posters ,pamphlets etc.
Most of the lesson activities are done by the learners who are facilitated into open discussions concerning the life issues. Skills such as speaking and listening are developed ,whilst children learn to express themselves and half solved their social problems by talking about them is promoted.

Aspects of Mantaining Order for Child Development!

Objective:After go through this article the reader should be able to:
•Explain what is socialisation?
•Outline how feelings and emotions can be expressed.
•Explain the accepted norms in the home.
Socialisation is the process through which a person learns ways of thinking ,feeling and behaving in agiven culture inorder to be accepted as part of his/her society.Part of socialisation is teaching what acceptable behaviour and discouraging unacceptable. Lewton(1974) once says ,education is the selection of culture.People have to learn that there are limits to what they are suppose to do.This is what is meant by the maintenance of order.In brief socialisation and maintaining order are related.
Aspects of Maintaining Order
The expressions of feelings and emotions:
Every human beings has strong feelings or emotions about things or people at one time or another.
Hiding emotions is both impossible and unhealthy. Ther are part of the process of socialisation so learn to express your feelings in ways that take into your account the others around you and are acceptable in them as well as beneficial to yourself.
This can be done through working feelings ,work on physical activities such as sports .By talking about feelings this helps you to feel better.
You could talk to the person who arouse these feelings or someone else.Avoid see people as always wrong, or don't speak unacceptable language to blaming others as this will result in conflict rather than solution to the problem.
People who don't learn to talk about their feelings can experience serious problems such as depressions or extremely aggressive behaviour.
Avoid such unbecoming behaviours by laughing about it. Laughing is discovered to release hormones in the bloodstream that are useful in fight against stress and depression. Laugh at yourself helps you to see that the situation as not serious after all.Laughing releases the tension.
Crying can be a good way of releasing pent out feelings ,for instance grief.Especially when you are unable to express them in any other way.
Making body contacts like hugging ,stroking or holding hands are good ways of expressing positive feelings of love and affection.
They allow one to experience love and security and reasurance can help relieve tensions and worries.However body contacts may not be appropriate in all situations, as is regarded unacceptable in other societies ,especially opposite sex.
Make use of emotions cretively done through writing,acting ,singing ,music ,painting or dancing
Norms
These are standards or rules that state what a person should not do under given circumstances.Some norms can be accepted ,whilst others can't accepted in other homes and it depends with the societies or individual household. Norms differ in the home from culture to culture ,from social class to another social class and from community to community.But certain basic norms apply in any situation where two or more people live together. Infact norms help us to abide us inorder to live with other people.Norms are shared by other people so that they can have special significant when they are adhered to people can able to live peacefully.
Family life would be chaotic if members didn't do exactly that please other members. Accepted norms general across social fabrics include:
•Taking care of yourself ,clothes,appearance ,health ,loving and helping others around you.
•Respecting and helping elders ,peers or parents.
•Setting a good example.
•Wearing well tidy clothes and avoid walking bare,exposing private parts to the public.
•Telling the truth and be honest all the time.
•Avoid doing illegal activities .
•Safe guiding and improving the environment .
•Being worth of trust as expected from different cultures ,homes and community.
•Fulfilling your obligations and treating everyone with mutual respect.
Discipline
It is used inorder to help children to behave in a socially accepted way.This help them to adhere to norms of groups such as the family.The children then develop conscience so that eventually they do things not because they are afraid of punishment ,but their own behaviour in terms of what they believe is right or wrong.
Approaches to Discipline
Negative sanctions ,for example smarking, withholding love,depriving the child of something ,such as watching TV.
Positive sanctions,for instance praising, or rewarding the child for doing something good instead of punishing the child for doing something wrong.
Parents or teachers should be consistant in their disciplinary measures.Very harsh and frequent punishment can have detrimental effects to the child's behaviour.

The inclusive Education system in Zimbabwe:challenges and solutions

Inclusive Education is now being promoted as it encourages cooperation in learning for all learners despite the levels of learning and other physical disabilities found in learners.
Inclusive education promote slow learners as it accommodates those learners and others with physical challenges.As consequences the gifted children are disadvantaged because of the slow pace of the way concepts are given and grasped.
The use of special media such as visual aids are difficulty to source because they all in need funds. Zimbabwe is still a developing country which is still facing huge problems to fully funds the needs of education especially in rural and other low income communites.
It is much difficulty to have suitable facilities such as furniture ,media especially to cater for the physically handcapped. In Zimbabwe because of budgetary constraints schools do not have tables, chairs,books and even the effort from teachers to facilites learning because teacher's incentives is not equally distributed across the nation.The low income communities are not afford to incentivise their teachers as compared with their counterparts in higher earned income families.
The stereotype situation is still a problem in most parents as they are hardly to accept that learning can be effective if it includes all learners of different needs as is how society set up oftenly review. However it is still necessary to make awareness of the benefits of inclusive education so that they can support government efforts to promote learning to all children despite their challenges.
It is necessary for teachers to design different tasks for all the pupils in these classes for the sack of progress to those without problems.Give extra work to the gifted children.The roles such as group leaders, class monitors are for the fast learners so that they can be fully occupied as they assist other peers to master the concepts.It is necessary for the teacher to ensure every child is occupied.
The teacher's stratergy to provide conditions conducive for needs of different children for them to learn. Like organising the seating arrangements so that physically challenged sit at an appropriate position. For example those with hearing problems need to sit where they can able to lip reading when their teacher is giving instructions.The visually impaired need to sit where they can see what is on the board and charts They need to write in big fonts ,hence big letters are easy for them to see much better.
The teacher's use of motivational stimulus like gestures,voice pitch help those with hearing problems to master communication as they are good at communicating with signs, so the use of gestures is helpful.
Inconclusion ,inclusive education should be used in every school despite the challeges associated with it.It is really an effective way of educating pupils .Teachers should strive by all means necessary for them to effectively teach inclusively for it to be successful. There is need of mutual co-operation of all stakeholders for the success of the inclusive education system such as, the government ,teachers and parents as well as learners to have interests of learning together as one people in great promotion of living together.

Pottery in Zimbabwe

The use of clay as media in making pots was a craft started long back as the pots were used for cooking and decorative purposes.Lets focus on pottery in Zimbabwe.
Gale (1977)defines pottery as a collective term that may be used to describe anything made out of clay which has be fired and heated through a certain temperature.
Historical background of pottery in Zimbabwe dates back to several thousand of years ago infact in the early settlement and the beginnings of using fire.
It was an essential part of Zimbabwe's material culture which can evidently traced through the various traditions discovered through archeological excavations.
Pots used in various ocassions and purposes such as gifts,to hold grains ,water ,preparation of food ,brewing of beer and so on.The decoration of kitchens were made colourful and beautiful by the use of pottery.
Archeologists are able to identify people
by findings of pottery which show distinctive decorations of particular cultures.Variations of these designs for example incessions ,cross hatching ,stamps ,chevrons patterns etc. These occur right through lend distinctive characters to Zimbabwean pottery.
However with the emergence of colour the decorative qualities appeared to have decline leading to the introduction of mass production of durable container vessels of all types.This implies that although the traditional craft was still practiced ,the fine qualities of the past was disappearing for example of the old craft have been superceded by some chevron decorations applied with modern paints.
Manufacture of traditional pots was practiced by women who were the main decorators of kitchens and other household rooms,prepared food ,gathering food and brewing beer.
The clay was collected from specific layers which occur in the sub soils.The dry clay must be grounded into fine powder and this normally done on a flat grinding stone.After sifting with winnowing basket.The dry powder left behind was mixed with water and was ready for pottery.
A circular platform was used as a base for the pot which was built up in a series of coils.A wooden shaping tool was used to help to shape the pot into the required size and form,If the pot was to be decorated it would be incisized with a pointed object before it dry.The finished pot will be stored in a cool dry place for 48 hours before being given the final smoothing with a rounded river pebble which known as "hurungudo" in vernacular chishona dialect.This polishing process gives the vessel a shining surface .
A final drying process now takes place and the pot was left in the sun for 12 hours .On the 4th day firing takes place.Pots are placed on top of each other,mouth down in a hallow.

The inclusive Education Implementation:What is it?

Inclusive Education is now being promoted as it encourages cooperation in learning for all learners despite the levels of learning and other physical disabilities found in learners.
According to Doctor Murinda (2005:20)"...inclusive education in Zimbabwe means a variety of educational provisions for children with special needs ."Murinda further points out that children who previously segregated in schools have been or are now accommodated in mainstream classes.Inclusive education in Zimbabwe is a structure or system whereby all the different types of learners learn together.The learners can be identified as slow learners,gifted and those who are physically challenged that's visually impaired,hearing impaired and so on.The teachers should include all these learners despite their challenges under one roof in a classroom situation.
Inclusive education is being implemented in most schools as a way of promoting living and learning together in an effort to do away with the spirit of segregation,isolation of those learners with challenges and promote them to have the sense of working with their peers as is normal in any community setup.
This type of education can be effective through the provision of special devices and other suitable strategies that can overcome these challenges faced by the learners.For instance ,the visual and audio impaired devices, use of large visual charts and audiograms respectively are useful.
Learners are involved to assist each other as children learn from peers more conveniently than when only left alone of those with same challenges. As they need the assistance of the teacher only and have difficulties in learning for peers.
Inclusive education promotes interaction among learners .The communication skills improved and most pupils tend to tolerate others ' problems in their learning groups.
The differences among learners discovered to promote richness and diversity.The variety in knowledge application and reasoning developed across sharing of ideas and cooperation without isolation.
The inclusive education encourages those with physical challenges to enhence their sporting activites.In Gwebi college primary school pupils who are physically handicapped have no problems of co-operating with others during sporting sessions.The teacher can include all pupils in the mainstream as they are exposed to these social facilities accessible to all community members and are being incoporated by other members of their community despite of their challenges.
Inclusive education tries to bring the real society that is normal with all people of different reasoning and abilities. If the society have same people without differences it ceases to be normal.USA president Esenhower once said,"it takes all sorts of people to make a world."As a result inclusive education promotes teamwork among all different groups of pupils without discrimination of physically challenges. Since pupils have different learning levels and different social backgrounds ,interests and ambitions learn in mixed grouping can develops the sense of working together and efficiently benefits everyone .
Inclusive education is good to the teacher who is dynamic ,flexible ,reflective in ability to change according to the demands of the situation. The use of different teaching methods and different pupils' organisation and activities is encouraged.These methods,organisation and activities assist all learners to meet their needs and enhance motivational stimulus for the progression on lessons.
The system has its own challenges.Which may need holistic approach to promote the learning of togetherness.The inclusive education tend to neglect the special needs of children.
According to Child(1976) pupils with special needs require individual instructions and extra love as they feel neglected because of their needs.Although inclusive education treat children according to their needs,it is difficult for the teacher to provide the much needed care, espeacially the handcapped who need extra care as they feel neglected.
Parents of disabled children may not happy in including their children in these classes because they think their children would not benefit well because of their challenges.
Inclusive education promote slow learning environment as it accommodates those learners and others with physical challenges.

PROFILES OF SOME POPULAR SCULPTORS IN ZIMBABWE!

Nicholas Mukomberanwa
He was born in 1940 in Buhera and trained wood carving in 1960s at Serima Mission by Father Groeber .
He was inspired by biblical emergery and traditional African masks.Nicholas developed personal style using the edges of wooden cubes he was given to curve.He preferred right angles and geometric forms.
Nicholas expelled from Serima Mission for disobeying the mission rules and later found a job as a policeman which he worked for 15 years.He spent most of his spare time drawing and curving.
In 1962 he joined workshop school of the then Rhodesia National Gallery.Where he slowly move away from religious iconography and strengthened his free original style. Nicholas acknowledge the huge influence of McWen had in his artistic prowess.
Nicholas was an extraordinary artist who dislike copying and always encourage his collegues to create something unique and new.He favoured symmetry ,hard edges ,stylisation ,a highly polished surfaces and exageration of future.
The works sometimes suggest African masks and radiate a magnetism that is almost magical.His main themes are ,the family unity and shona myth which have assumed increasing importance for him ,that 's dowality being and now to a lasser extent religion.
Henry Munyaradzi
Henry is reowned stone sculptor In Zimbabwe .Born in 1931. In the Chingwaro village in Muzarabani .Henry's totem is Nzou ,the elephant.His upbringing was typically rural.He didn't attend a formal school.Henry worked in the in the area of birth as a herdboy,assistant carpenter as well as a farm worker in Guruve farming area.Henry's surname Munyaradzi means one who brings peace,reconciliation and harmony.According to sultan (1972),this might have moulded the self-taught artist into one who sees bondage in stone and always wants to set free by shaping it according to his deamed degrees of freedom and immortality. Henry was influenced by his African cultural sense in which its qualities were the norm of cultural drive.He drew inspiration and imagination from shapes of the stone itself.He greatly respects the stone he uses and its original shape.
In 1967 ,Henry joined the Tengenenge school of Art during its inception by the former commercial farmer Tom Blomfield.He perfected his work in the schoo till 1975.Henry favoured to work on the serpentine stone .He produced the stone into free spirit of animals,man ,woman ,the moon and the wind.Henry's quest to express beings and spirits into stone is the influential factor behind the production of "The window." The window was completed in September 1988 and it shows an elogated face of woman features. The face seems to represent a life in which manners are well read.The tilted face portrays the African woman in her full manners of asking rather than demanding from a husband.Most cultured woman show such good manners.
Through his work ,Henry managed to purchase a farm and he died in 1998.
Agness Nyanhongo
Agness was born in 1960 .She trained at BAT workshop School National Gallery and at Chapungu .At Chapungu it was informal meaning that she learn from observation,watching others at work.She is married to sculptor Joseph Munemo.
While she developed as an artist and treated by men as their peer .She has not divorced herself from traditonal role of the shona woman that of being both a wife and mother.Her role model was her father Mr Claude Nyanhongo a sculptor.Though got a lot of assistance from her father.She came naturally to be a reowned sculptor.
Her experience improved her technique and most importantly broadening and deepening her understanding of Art.Agness ' involvement with the culture is highly subjective and her work potrays how her culture affects her personal and private circumstances as it led her to devorce her husband and never led her to quit her self concepts.
Her works are represented in in overseas galleries as well as in the Zimbabwe National Gallery .She won an award of merit with her piece of stone sculpture called Refugee mother and child.Feminism is unknown to her but wishing to be successfull artist to break the traditional belief that women can't do it in sculpture which is a men dominated work.
REFERENCE
Celia Winter Irving(1991)Stone scupture in Zimbabwe,Roblaw Publishers,Harare
Zimbabwe weldart competition ,1986 award of merits.
Zimbabwe Heritage Exhibition ,National Gallery of Zimbabwe 1987 ,Award of Distrition.
One Person Exhibition 1987,PG Gallery National Gallery of Zimbabwe.